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Biofuels of the Future (0 Favorites)

LESSON PLAN in Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure . Last updated November 15, 2018.


This resource could be used as a post-AP Chemistry exam activity

Summary

In this lesson students will explore the world of automobile alternative energy sources through the study of biofuels. They will design and create an e-book that illustrates and explains one of the provided topics or an original idea approved by the teacher.

Grade Level

High school

NGSS Alignment

This lesson will help prepare your students to meet the performance expectations in the following standards:

  • HS-ETS1-1: Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
  • HS-ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
  • HS-ETS1-3: Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

Objectives

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to

  • Explain the meaning of the term biofuel.
  • Describe different types of biofuels and how they are produced.
  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels versus petroleum based fuels.
  • Predict any possible effects of biofuels on the automotive industry.
  • Construct arguments in defense of a position that:
    • supports the use of biofuels in automobiles ,
    • rejects the utilization of biofuels in automobiles
  • Design and create an e-book that illustrates the future of the biofuels industry in relation to their use as automotive fuels.

Chemistry Topics

This lesson supports students’ understanding of

  • Molecular Structures
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Fermentation
  • Distillation
  • Combustion
  • Chemical Reactions

Time

Teacher Preparation: minimal

Activity:

  • Engage: 30 minutes
  • Explore: 60 minutes
  • Explain: 30 minutes
  • Elaborate: 120 minutes
  • Evaluate: 10 minutes per student presentation

Materials

  • Internet access
  • Computer, tablet etc.

Safety

  • No specific safety precautions need to be observed for this activity.

Teacher Notes

  • This resource could be used as a post-AP Chemistry exam activity.
  • Engage: Students should watch this short video on algae and the future of biofuels.
  • Explore: Students will perform Internet research about different types of biofuels (suggested resources are listed on the student handout). Next, students should participate in a brainstorming session. Share the available Brainstorming Self-Assessment Rubric with students. The Brainstorming Process is a good resource to review for productive brainstorming. Also, students will complete the additional assignments 1-5 outlined on the student document.
  • Explain: Students will explain the processes by which biofuels are produced.
  • Elaborate: In groups, students will design and create an e-book illustrating their chosen focus/idea using a format that may include one of the following:

Students should also read the article: "Why is it so difficult to make Cellulosic Ethanol?"

  • Evaluate: Refer to rubric for e-Book. Students will present their e-book to the class. A sample e-book has been included for teacher reference.

For the Student

Background

In this activity you will explore the world of automobile alternative energy sources through the study of biofuels. You will be part of a working group that will design and create an e-book on a pre-approved topic that illustrates and explains the processes by which the alternative energy source is produced and utilized. As part of your e-book, you will make a prediction about what the future may hold for biofuels in the automotive industry.

Important Scientific terms

  • Algaculture
  • Biofuel
  • Biodiesel
  • Biomass
  • Cellulosic Ethanol
  • Distillation
  • Fermentation
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Renewable resource

* Add any additional terms found in your research

Brainstorming Resources

Objectives

By the end of this activity, you should be able to:

  • Explain the meaning of the term Biofuel
  • Consider the following questions:
    • Where do the carbon and the energy in a biofuel come from?
    • Where do the carbon and the energy in a biofuel go?
  • Understand the processes of distillation and fermentation

Assignments

  1. The chemical reactions we call Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are processes in which fuel (glucose) is produced and utilized by living organisms. How does the energy released in the combustion of one mole of glucose compare to the energy released in the combustion of one mole of ethanol?

  2. Calculate the change in enthalpy for the following reactions:

    Ethanol: CH3CH2OH (g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (g)

    Glucose: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O­(g)

  3. How does the energy released from the combustion of gasoline (assume one mole of octane for calculation purposes) compare with ethanol?

  4. C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) → 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g)

  5. Describe different types of biofuels and how they are produced, use this resource to help.
  6. Construct a table outlining the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels versus petroleum based fuels
  7. PROS/Advantages

    CONS/Disadvantages











  1. Construct arguments in defense of a position that:
      1. supports the use of biofuels in automobiles or,
      2. rejects the utilization of biofuels in automobiles

    E-Book Creation

    As a group, design and create a “Little e-Book” that illustrates and explains one of the following ideas:

      • History of Diesel Engines and the connection to biofuel
      • Petroleum Diesel versus Biodiesel
      • Environmental Impact of Biofuels in the Automotive Industry
      • Biofuels as gasoline additives
      • Challenges of Biofuel production
      • Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emission from fossil fuels versus biofuels
      • OR submit an original idea for teacher approval

    Task Description
    Each group will design and create an e-Book that illustrates and explains one particular aspect of Biofuels with respect to the “Chemistry of Cars”, including production, utilization and environmental considerations

    • Select focus/title of project with connection to biofuels
    • Prepare outline of research information
    • Design and create a little e-Book using one of the following resources or one of your choosing:

    Required components

    • Title page with original title and creative illustrations/images
    • 4-6 pages of content related to the chosen topic
    • Each page must contain graphics, illustration or images
    • At least one embedded video
    • Conclusion page including predictions for the future
    • Works cited page (ALL non-original digital resources MUST be cited)
    • Maximum of 9 pages

    Conclusions

    • As a group, a short concluding paragraph will be written that summarizes your findings and makes a prediction about the future of biofuels in the automotive industry.
    • This will be the last content page of your e-Book.


    Citations

    All resources used should be properly cited in MLA format and submitted as a separate“works cited” page in your book.

    Scoring Rubric
    Refer to rubric below as your group prepares your e-Book.


    E-book Scoring Rubric:

    Criteria

    Exemplary

    Accomplished

    Developing

    Beginning

    Required components

    The book includes all required components showing extraordinary attention to detail

    The book includes all required components showing satisfactory attention to detail

    The book includes most required components

    showing minimal attention to detail

    The book includes few required components with little evidence of attention to detail

    Creativity and Critical thinking

    Book displays a high degree of creative effort in the presentation with strong evidence of the critical thinking process

    Book displays creative effort in the presentation with some evidence of the critical thinking process

    Book displays minimal degree of creative effort in the presentation with little evidence of the critical thinking process

    Book displays little or no creative effort in the presentation with little or no evidence of the critical thinking process

    Graphics

    (illustrations, images, videos)

    All required graphics are included; graphics are sophisticated and highly appropriate to the topic

    All required graphics are included; graphics are simple and appropriate to the topic

    All graphics are included; graphics are simple and somewhat related to the topic

    Many graphic have been omitted or are unrelated to the topic

    Quality of information

    All information is highly relevant to topic with no extraneous or unrelated details

    Most information is relevant to topic with few extraneous or unrelated details

    Some information is relevant to topic with some extraneous or unrelated details

    Most information is irrelevant or unrelated to the topic

    ELA conventions (grammar, spelling,

    punctuation, etc.)

    No errors in ELA conventions

    Few minor errors in ELA conventions that do not take away from content clarity

    Many errors in ELA conventions that do not take away from content clarity

    Many errors in ELA conventions that seriously take from content clarity

    Adapted from: E-book Scoring Rubric

    Source:Rcampus