Classroom Resources: Solutions


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  • Solubility, Solubility Rules, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Chemical Bond, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Polarity, Intermolecular Forces, Intramolecular Forces | High School, Middle School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Animation Activity: Solubility

    In this activity, students will use an animation to visualize how ionic and molecular compounds dissolve (or don’t) in water. They will see that if an ionic compound such as salt dissolves, the ions dissociate, whereas the molecules in a molecular compound such as sugar remain intact but are separated from one another by water molecules. They will also see that some ionic compounds, such as chalk, do not dissolve, and the cations and anions remain stuck together.

  • Net Ionic Equation, Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Balancing Equations | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Animation Activity: Net Ionic Equations

    In this activity, students will us an animation to visualize what happens in a precipitate reaction on the particulate level, and they will see why writing a net ionic equation accurately represents what happens in these scenarios. An example of diluting a soluble solid, mixing two aqueous reactants that yield aqueous products, and mixing two aqueous reactants that yield a precipitate are part of this animation.

  • Colligative Properties, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression, Concentration, Solute & Solvent, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion, Graphing, Physical Properties, Heat, Temperature | High School, Middle School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Simulation Activity: The Effect of Solutes on Boiling and Freezing Point

    In this activity, students will use a colligative properties simulation to investigate the effects of different solutes, and different amounts of those solutes, on the boiling point and freezing point of a solution. Students will see particle-level animations of boiling and freezing with different types and amounts of solutes, as well as graphical representations of the results of each trial.

  • Colligative Properties, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression, Concentration, Solute & Solvent, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion, Graphing, Physical Properties, Heat, Temperature | High School

    Simulation: Colligative Properties

    In this simulation, students will investigate the effects of different solutes, and different amounts of those solutes, on the boiling point and freezing point of a solution. Students will see particle-level animations of boiling and freezing with different types and amounts of solutes, as well as graphical representations of the results of each trial.

  • Interdisciplinary, History, Solubility, Concentration | High School

    Lesson Plan: Legacy of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring

    In this lesson, students will read an article to learn about the impact Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring has had. Arguably, the U.S. EPA was formed as a result, and a Nobel Prize-worthy discovery was banned after the book was published. There are a series of activities to help promote literacy in the science classroom related to the reading. This lesson could be easily used as plans for a substitute teacher since most of the activities are self-guided.

  • Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Predicting Products | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: Investigating Precipitate Formation

    In this lesson, students will learn about lead and the contamination of drinking water. Through collaboration, students will then consider strategies for decontaminating water, and have the opportunity to perform small-scale precipitation reactions as a method of extracting metal ions from a water sample. Finally, students can conduct research and reflect on their experience to propose a possible solution for decontaminating drinking water.

  • Identifying an Unknown, Observations, Physical Change, Physical Properties, Chemical Change, Chemical Properties, Solubility, Precipitate, Indicators | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Using Qualitative Analysis to Identify Household Compounds

    In this lab, students will be introduced to common laboratory techniques, safety procedures, lab reagents, and terminology, all while identifying unknown household substances. Students will learn how to use qualitative analysis techniques as a systematic way to identify unknown materials. As part of this process, they will practice careful observation and documentation, as well as identifying relevant physical and chemical properties and changes, including solubility, color change, gas formation, and precipitation of solids.

  • Solubility Rules, Solubility, Ionic Bonding, Predicting Products | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Solubility Rules Dice Game

    In this activity, students will use ion dice to form a number of different ionic compounds. Based on the resulting ionic compound, they will use a solubility chart to determine if it is soluble or insoluble. This game will allow students to become more familiar with ionic compounds and solubility rules.

  • Freezing Point Depression, Heat, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion | High School, Middle School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Sweet, Salty and Cold as Ice

    In this lab, students conduct a micro-scale investigation to explore how various solutes affect the freezing point of water. Because of the small volume of liquid used, results are visible within minutes. Students observe what happens to the liquids as they are cooled and use their observations to infer what is going on at the particle level. They will use the results to explain the familiar phenomena of why we salt our roads and sidewalks in the winter and why freshwater lakes and ponds freeze over more easily than saltwater oceans in the winter.

  • Identifying an Unknown, Experimental Design, Scientific Method, Chemical Change, Net Ionic Equation, Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Balancing Equations, Predicting Products, Chemical Change | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Mislabeled Mess!

    In this lab, students will identify 3 unknown acids by using the solubility rules. They will be given a list of materials and will design their own procedures for identifying the unknowns. For each combination of reactants, they will predict whether a product forms and, if it does, write complete and net ionic equations for those reactions.

  • Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure , Polymers, Solubility | High School

    Video: Ingenious Video 4: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem

    Polypropylene recycling has a problem: It stinks. Food and other residues are almost impossible to remove entirely from polypropylene, a.k.a the number “5” plastic of grocery-store fame. Those residues – anything from yogurt to garlic, from fish oil to baby food – not only stick to polypropylene, they degrade there and start to smell even worse! Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling. Unless you break down its molecules through a highly energy-intensive refining process, the material can only get a second life as a black trash can or an underground pipe – wherever its smell doesn’t matter. But a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that. Dissolution recycling uses a special hydrocarbon polymer solvent under finely controlled conditions of temperature and pressure to eliminate ALL of the contaminants embedded in the plastic.

  • Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure , Polymers, Solubility | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Ingenious: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem Video Questions

    In this activity, students will answer questions while watching the video, How Science is Fixing Recycling’s Grossest Problem, from the Ingenious series produced by the American Chemical Society. Each episode investigates a different topic related to how leading-edge chemistry is taking on the world’s most urgent issues to advance everyone’s quality of life and secure our shared future. This episode investigates the stinky problems associated with polypropylene recycling. Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling, but a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that.

  • Identifying an Unknown, Experimental Design, Chemical Properties, Physical Properties, Observations, Polyatomic Ions, Chemical Change, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Solubility | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Determining the Composition of Bridge Straw Stalactites

    In this lab, students will investigate “straws” that hang from a local bridge, and then determine various tests that can help to determine their chemical composition. Evaluating both the test results, as well as given information students will then make a claim about the composition, while providing evidence and supporting it with reasoning.

  • Reaction Rate, Concentration, Reaction Rate | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: How Fast Can We Remove Tough Stains?

    In this lab, students explore how temperature and concentration can affect reaction rate. Using various mixtures of OxiClean solutions, blue food coloring, and water students conduct several tests and draw conclusions based on their results.

  • Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons, Concentration, Molarity, Net Ionic Equation, Nernst Equation | High School

    Simulation: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells 2

    In this simulation, students can create a variety of standard and non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. Students will choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. They can build concentration cells and other non-standard cells, record the cell potential from the voltmeter, and observe the corresponding oxidation and reduction half reactions.

  • Galvanic Cells, Reduction Potentials, Redox Reaction, Half Reactions, Electrons, Electron Transfer, Anode, Cathode, Oxidation, Reduction, Concentration, Net Ionic Equation, Molarity, Nernst Equation | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Simulation Activity: Non-Standard Galvanic Cells

    In this activity, students will use a simulation to create a variety of non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. This simulation allows students to choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. Students will build concentration cells and other non-standard cells and record the cell potential from the voltmeter. They will compare the results of different data sets, write net ionic equations, and describe electron flow through a galvanic/voltaic cell from anode to cathode as well as the direction of migration of ions, anions towards the anode and cations towards the cathode.

  • Concentration, Percent Composition | High School, Middle School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Homemade Hydrometers

    In this lesson, students will engineer simple hydrometers from straws and clay to learn about standard solutions, calibration, and instrument drift. They will use their hydrometers to test the salinity of samples of natural water.

  • Solubility, Conductivity, Concentration, Equilibrium Constants, Stoichiometry | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Experimental Determination of the Solubility Product Constant for Calcium Hydroxide

    In this lab, students will predict and measure the relationship between the conductivity of a solution of calcium hydroxide and the mass of substance added to it. From the relationship, students will determine solubility and Ksp of calcium hydroxide. Ksp will be calculated using the molar concentration of ions in the solution and the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of calcium hydroxide.

  • Significant Figures, Measurements, Beer's Law, Concentration, Molarity | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Investigating Shades of Blue

    In this lab investigation, students will create a copper(II) nitrate solution. Each group will be given a different measurement device in order to see how the accuracy of the preparation of the solution is affected by the limitations of the measurement device. The goal is for students to have a true understanding of why significant figures are important.

  • Solubility, Solute & Solvent, Precipitate, Mixtures, Error Analysis, Chemical Change, Physical Change, Observations, Identifying an Unknown, Graphing | High School, Middle School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Chemicals, Chromatography, and Crime!

    In this lab, students will test “evidence” that has been collected from a crime scene. In order to determine if the victim was poisoned, students will perform a solubility and crystallization test on an unknown powder. Then, students will attempt to identify the culprit by using paper chromatography to analyze the lipstick from the potential criminals.

  • Galvanic Cells, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Oxidation, Reduction, Electrons, Electron Transfer, Net Ionic Equation | High School

    Simulation: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells

    In this simulation, students select different metals and aqueous solutions to build a galvanic/voltaic cell that generates electrical energy and observe the corresponding oxidation and reduction half reactions.

  • Galvanic Cells, Reduction Potentials, Redox Reaction, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Oxidation, Reduction, Electrons, Electron Transfer, Net Ionic Equation | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Simulation Activity: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells

    In this activity, students will use a simulation to create a variety of galvanic/voltaic cells with different electrodes. They will record the cell potential from the voltmeter and will use their data to determine the reduction potential of each half reaction. Students will also identify anodes and cathodes, write half reaction equations and full chemical equations, and view what is happening in each half cell and the salt bridge on a molecular scale.

  • Review, Culminating Project, Mixtures, Separating Mixtures, Beer's Law, Concentration, Conductivity, Redox Reaction, Half Reactions, pH, Titrations, Buffers, Indicators, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Alloys, Percent Composition, Le Châtelier's Principle, Enthalpy, Calorimetry | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: AP Chemistry Experimental Evidence Review

    In this lesson, students will evaluate data from 16 simulated lab experiments that were designed to mirror the Recommended Labs from the College Board. Corresponding lab experiments and demonstration options have also been included for teacher reference.

  • Equilibrium Constants, Le Châtelier's Principle, Gibb's Free Energy , Enthalpy, Entropy, Solubility | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: Relationship Between Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant

    In this lesson, students will explore the relationships between solubility and Keq (specifically Ksp), as well as Keq and ΔG°. First, a guided inquiry activity will introduce the relationship between standard free energy and equilibrium constant with the equation ΔG° = -RTlnKeq. Then data collection regarding solubility of potassium nitrate at various temperatures will lead to the calculation of Ksp and ΔGo for the dissolution reaction at those temperatures. Students will manipulate the equations ΔG° = -RTlnKeq and ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS° to derive a linear relationship between 1/T and lnKeq, which will then be graphed to determine values for ΔH° and ΔS°.

  • Solubility, Intermolecular Forces, Molarity | High School

    Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Solutions Escape Room

    In this activity, students will review concepts covered in a solutions unit. They will complete problems in order to determine codes that will allow them to advance through stages of a Google Form, which is set up as an escape room. This activity is designed to be used at the end of a unit, or as an alternate to an exam, particularly in a virtual environment.

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