Classroom Resources: Solutions


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  • Solubility, Precipitate, Solubility Rules, Predicting Products | High School

    Lesson Plan: Investigating Precipitate Formation

    In this lesson, students will learn about lead and the contamination of drinking water. Through collaboration, students will then consider strategies for decontaminating water, and have the opportunity to perform small-scale precipitation reactions as a method of extracting metal ions from a water sample. Finally, students can conduct research and reflect on their experience to propose a possible solution for decontaminating drinking water.

  • Observations, Physical Properties, Solubility, Physical Change, Precipitate, Identifying an Unknown, Chemical Change, Indicators, Chemical Properties | High School

    Lab: Using Qualitative Analysis to Identify Household Compounds

    In this lab, students will be introduced to common laboratory techniques, safety procedures, lab reagents, and terminology, all while identifying unknown household substances. Students will learn how to use qualitative analysis techniques as a systematic way to identify unknown materials. As part of this process, they will practice careful observation and documentation, as well as identifying relevant physical and chemical properties and changes, including solubility, color change, gas formation, and precipitation of solids.

  • Solubility, Ionic Bonding, Solubility Rules, Predicting Products | High School

    Activity: Solubility Rules Dice Game

    In this activity, students will use ion dice to form a number of different ionic compounds. Based on the resulting ionic compound, they will use a solubility chart to determine if it is soluble or insoluble. This game will allow students to become more familiar with ionic compounds and solubility rules.

  • Phase Changes, Heat, Molecular Motion, Freezing Point Depression | Middle School, High School

    Lab: Sweet, Salty and Cold as Ice

    In this lab, students conduct a micro-scale investigation to explore how various solutes affect the freezing point of water. Because of the small volume of liquid used, results are visible within minutes. Students observe what happens to the liquids as they are cooled and use their observations to infer what is going on at the particle level. They will use the results to explain the familiar phenomena of why we salt our roads and sidewalks in the winter and why freshwater lakes and ponds freeze over more easily than saltwater oceans in the winter.

  • Solubility, Precipitate, Identifying an Unknown, Chemical Change, Net Ionic Equation, Balancing Equations, Chemical Change, Scientific Method, Solubility Rules, Experimental Design, Predicting Products | High School

    Lab: Mislabeled Mess!

    In this lab, students will identify 3 unknown acids by using the solubility rules. They will be given a list of materials and will design their own procedures for identifying the unknowns. For each combination of reactants, they will predict whether a product forms and, if it does, write complete and net ionic equations for those reactions.

  • Solubility, Polymers, Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure | High School

    Activity: Ingenious: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem Video Questions

    In this activity, students will answer questions while watching the video, How Science is Fixing Recycling’s Grossest Problem, from the Ingenious series produced by the American Chemical Society. Each episode investigates a different topic related to how leading-edge chemistry is taking on the world’s most urgent issues to advance everyone’s quality of life and secure our shared future. This episode investigates the stinky problems associated with polypropylene recycling. Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling, but a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that.

  • Solubility, Polymers, Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure | High School

    Video: Ingenious Video 4: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem

    Polypropylene recycling has a problem: It stinks. Food and other residues are almost impossible to remove entirely from polypropylene, a.k.a the number “5” plastic of grocery-store fame. Those residues – anything from yogurt to garlic, from fish oil to baby food – not only stick to polypropylene, they degrade there and start to smell even worse! Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling. Unless you break down its molecules through a highly energy-intensive refining process, the material can only get a second life as a black trash can or an underground pipe – wherever its smell doesn’t matter. But a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that. Dissolution recycling uses a special hydrocarbon polymer solvent under finely controlled conditions of temperature and pressure to eliminate ALL of the contaminants embedded in the plastic.

  • Observations, Physical Properties, Solubility, Identifying an Unknown, Polyatomic Ions, Chemical Change, Covalent Bonding, Ionic Bonding, Chemical Properties, Experimental Design | High School

    Lab: Determining the Composition of Bridge Straw Stalactites

    In this lab, students will investigate “straws” that hang from a local bridge, and then determine various tests that can help to determine their chemical composition. Evaluating both the test results, as well as given information students will then make a claim about the composition, while providing evidence and supporting it with reasoning.

  • Reaction Rate, Concentration, Reaction Rate | High School

    Lab: How Fast Can We Remove Tough Stains?

    In this lab, students explore how temperature and concentration can affect reaction rate. Using various mixtures of OxiClean solutions, blue food coloring, and water students conduct several tests and draw conclusions based on their results.

  • Concentration, Molarity, Net Ionic Equation, Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons, Nernst Equation | High School

    Simulation: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells 2

    In this simulation, students can create a variety of standard and non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. Students will choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. They can build concentration cells and other non-standard cells, record the cell potential from the voltmeter, and observe the corresponding oxidation and reduction half reactions.

  • Concentration, Molarity, Net Ionic Equation, Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons, Nernst Equation | High School

    Activity: Simulation Activity: Non-Standard Galvanic Cells

    In this activity, students will use a simulation to create a variety of non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. This simulation allows students to choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. Students will build concentration cells and other non-standard cells and record the cell potential from the voltmeter. They will compare the results of different data sets, write net ionic equations, and describe electron flow through a galvanic/voltaic cell from anode to cathode as well as the direction of migration of ions, anions towards the anode and cations towards the cathode.

  • Concentration, Percent Composition | Middle School, High School

    Lab: Homemade Hydrometers

    In this lesson, students will engineer simple hydrometers from straws and clay to learn about standard solutions, calibration, and instrument drift. They will use their hydrometers to test the salinity of samples of natural water.

  • Solubility, Concentration, Conductivity, Stoichiometry, Equilibrium Constants | High School

    Lab: Experimental Determination of the Solubility Product Constant for Calcium Hydroxide

    In this lab, students will predict and measure the relationship between the conductivity of a solution of calcium hydroxide and the mass of substance added to it. From the relationship, students will determine solubility and Ksp of calcium hydroxide. Ksp will be calculated using the molar concentration of ions in the solution and the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of calcium hydroxide.

  • Concentration, Molarity, Measurements, Significant Figures, Beer's Law | High School

    Lab: Investigating Shades of Blue

    In this lab investigation, students will create a copper(II) nitrate solution. Each group will be given a different measurement device in order to see how the accuracy of the preparation of the solution is affected by the limitations of the measurement device. The goal is for students to have a true understanding of why significant figures are important.

  • Observations, Solubility, Physical Change, Solute & Solvent, Precipitate, Identifying an Unknown, Chemical Change, Mixtures, Graphing, Error Analysis | Middle School, High School

    Lab: Chemicals, Chromatography, and Crime!

    In this lab, students will test “evidence” that has been collected from a crime scene. In order to determine if the victim was poisoned, students will perform a solubility and crystallization test on an unknown powder. Then, students will attempt to identify the culprit by using paper chromatography to analyze the lipstick from the potential criminals.

  • Net Ionic Equation, Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons | High School

    Simulation: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells

    In this simulation, students select different metals and aqueous solutions to build a galvanic/voltaic cell that generates electrical energy and observe the corresponding oxidation and reduction half reactions.

  • Net Ionic Equation, Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons | High School

    Activity: Simulation Activity: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells

    In this activity, students will use a simulation to create a variety of galvanic/voltaic cells with different electrodes. They will record the cell potential from the voltmeter and will use their data to determine the reduction potential of each half reaction. Students will also identify anodes and cathodes, write half reaction equations and full chemical equations, and view what is happening in each half cell and the salt bridge on a molecular scale.

  • Separating Mixtures, Concentration, Review, Culminating Project, Covalent Bonding, Ionic Bonding, Percent Composition, Le Châtelier's Principle, Calorimetry, Titrations, Indicators, Redox Reaction, Half Reactions, Beer's Law, Buffers, Enthalpy, Conductivity, Mixtures, Alloys, pH | High School

    Lesson Plan: AP Chemistry Experimental Evidence Review

    In this lesson, students will evaluate data from 16 simulated lab experiments that were designed to mirror the Recommended Labs from the College Board. Corresponding lab experiments and demonstration options have also been included for teacher reference.

  • Solubility, Le Châtelier's Principle, Entropy, Gibb's Free Energy , Equilibrium Constants, Enthalpy | High School

    Lesson Plan: Relationship Between Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant

    In this lesson, students will explore the relationships between solubility and Keq (specifically Ksp), as well as Keq and ΔG°. First, a guided inquiry activity will introduce the relationship between standard free energy and equilibrium constant with the equation ΔG° = -RTlnKeq. Then data collection regarding solubility of potassium nitrate at various temperatures will lead to the calculation of Ksp and ΔGo for the dissolution reaction at those temperatures. Students will manipulate the equations ΔG° = -RTlnKeq and ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS° to derive a linear relationship between 1/T and lnKeq, which will then be graphed to determine values for ΔH° and ΔS°.

  • Solubility, Intermolecular Forces, Molarity | High School

    Activity: Solutions Escape Room

    In this activity, students will review concepts covered in a solutions unit. They will complete problems in order to determine codes that will allow them to advance through stages of a Google Form, which is set up as an escape room. This activity is designed to be used at the end of a unit, or as an alternate to an exam, particularly in a virtual environment.

  • Concentration, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Graphing | High School

    Lesson Plan: Determining the Time of Death

    In this lesson, students will perform a flame test on a sample of vitreous humor (liquid found in the eyeball) in a forensic investigation. They will determine which element from the sample is used to determine the time of death. Then they will engineer a simple spectrophotometer to quantify that element. Evaluating a fake sample of vitreous humor in their spectrophotometer will help them determine the time of death for a hypothetical cadaver.

  • Separating Mixtures, Mixtures, Solubility, Intermolecular Forces | High School

    Lab: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate the Pigments Found in Ink

    In this lab, students will separate the component pigments of a water-soluble black marker using paper chromatography.

  • Physical Properties, Solubility, Covalent Bonding, Polarity, Intermolecular Forces, Molecular Geometry, Electronegativity | Middle School, High School

    Activity: The Chemistry of Water Video Questions

    In this lesson, students will watch a video and answer questions about how the molecular geometry and polarity of water give rise to many of its unusual physical properties, including its relatively high boiling point and its ability to dissolve some substances but not others.

  • Physical Properties, Solubility, Melting Point, Naming Compounds, Ionic Bonding, Molecular Formula, Ionic Radius, Ions | High School

    Activity: My Name is Bond, Ionic Bond

    In this lesson, students will demonstrate their knowledge of ionic bond strength using a “brackets” activity. Pairs of students start the activity playing a game of “Ionic Compound War” to build eight compounds. Then then transfer the compounds to a “bracket” and use their knowledge of ionic bonding, along with a solubility chart, to predict the strongest and weakest bond between four pairs of ionic substances.

  • Physical Properties, Solubility, Melting Point, Naming Compounds, Ionic Bonding, Molecular Formula, Ionic Radius, Ions | High School

    Activity: Ionic Bonding Brackets

    In this lesson, students will demonstrate their knowledge of ionic bond strength and its relationship to the properties of melting point and solubility using a “brackets” activity. After analyzing the ionic charge and radius to predict the strongest and weakest bond between four pairs of ionic substances, they will then determine which will be the least soluble.

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