# Classroom Resources: Solutions

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• Solubility, Solubility Rules, Concentration, Molarity, Reactions & Stoichiometry, Stoichiometry | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: The Gravimetric Analysis of Lead in Contaminated Water

In this lab, students will perform a gravimetric analysis of a simulated water sample contaminated with “lead”. Using their knowledge of solubility and chemical reactions they will precipitate the “lead” from the water sample. Then from the data collected, they will calculate the concentration of “lead” in their samples and compare that value to those found in water samples from the Flint, Michigan water crisis.

• Concentration, Solubility, Molarity, Chemistry Basics, Graphing | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Concentration and Solubility

In this activity, students will use news articles and EPA publications to compare Federal drinking water regulations to the concentrations found in Flint, Michigan. Students are introduced to the unit parts per billion (ppb) and compare it both conceptually and mathematically to molarity. As a group, students use data to compare the solubility of various lead salts and perform solubility calculations.

• Solubility, Net Ionic Equation, Precipitate | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Corrosion and Precipitation

In this activity, students will investigate concepts of corrosion and redox as they consider the Flint, Michigan Water Crisis and the question, “How did the lead get into Flint’s drinking water?” As they explore these topics while also considering solubility, students will begin to understand how corrosion control is used to prevent lead from contaminating a drinking water supply.

• Solubility, pH | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: Investigating Ocean and Marine Algae

In this lesson, students will learn about coccolithophores, unicellular marine algae that inhabit the upper layer of the ocean. These phytoplankton form calcium carbonate, calcite, scales called coccoliths and are the biggest calcite producers in the ocean. First, students will observe photos of algal blooms of different types and analyze the photos for similarities and differences. Next, students will be introduced to types of marine algae including coccolithophores and to how ocean pH changes are impacting the availability of carbonate for use in the formation of calcite shells and coccoliths. Students will then plan and carry out a small-scale laboratory to investigate the relationship between the solubility of calcium carbonate and pH. To conclude, students will read an abstract of recent research into coccolithophores and ocean acidification and compare and contrast those findings with their own investigation’s results.

• Observations, Physical Properties, Solubility, Ionic Bonding | High School, Middle School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Microscopic Wonder

In this lab, students observe and describe the shape, size, and arrangement of salt crystals at various magnifications under a microscope and then compare the properties of each microscopically.

• Concentration, Precipitate, Molarity, Molality, Conductivity, Colligative Properties, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression, Distillation, Culminating Project, Graphing, Accuracy, Error Analysis, Interdisciplinary, Mixtures, pH, Buffers, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: Investigating Sea Water

In this lesson, students will consider their water footprint and means to obtain fresh water from seawater using a solar still. To understand the differences between fresh water and seawater, students will determine the composition of artificial seawater by using qualitative analysis to test for different ions in solution and calculate the molarity of different salts used in the recipe. Students will observe the effects of solutes in aqueous solutions by measuring conductivity and the freezing and boiling points of seawater and deionized water and determine total dissolved solids. In addition, students explore the buffering ability of seawater and the effect of carbon dioxide on its pH.

• Identifying an Unknown, Chemical Properties, Solute & Solvent, Mixtures | Middle School, High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Local Water Analysis

In this lab, students use simple pool test strips to collect water samples from local water sources, such as area faucets, pools, lakes, rivers, puddles, etc. They will compile all of the collected data to allow students to collectively make observations and ask testable questions. After determining a question of interest, groups of students will organize the related data, research relevant background information, form reasonable conclusions, and present their arguments.

• Solubility, Solubility Rules, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Chemical Bond, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Polarity, Intermolecular Forces, Intramolecular Forces | Middle School, High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Animation Activity: Solubility

In this activity, students will use an animation to visualize how ionic and molecular compounds dissolve (or don’t) in water. They will see that if an ionic compound such as salt dissolves, the ions dissociate, whereas the molecules in a molecular compound such as sugar remain intact but are separated from one another by water molecules. They will also see that some ionic compounds, such as chalk, do not dissolve, and the cations and anions remain stuck together.

• Net Ionic Equation, Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Balancing Equations | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Animation Activity: Net Ionic Equations

In this activity, students will us an animation to visualize what happens in a precipitate reaction on the particulate level, and they will see why writing a net ionic equation accurately represents what happens in these scenarios. An example of diluting a soluble solid, mixing two aqueous reactants that yield aqueous products, and mixing two aqueous reactants that yield a precipitate are part of this animation.

• Colligative Properties, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression, Concentration, Solute & Solvent, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion, Graphing, Physical Properties, Heat, Temperature | High School

### Simulation: Colligative Properties

In this simulation, students will investigate the effects of different solutes, and different amounts of those solutes, on the boiling point and freezing point of a solution. Students will see particle-level animations of boiling and freezing with different types and amounts of solutes, as well as graphical representations of the results of each trial.

• Colligative Properties, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression, Concentration, Solute & Solvent, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion, Graphing, Physical Properties, Heat, Temperature | Middle School, High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Simulation Activity: The Effect of Solutes on Boiling and Freezing Point

In this activity, students will use a colligative properties simulation to investigate the effects of different solutes, and different amounts of those solutes, on the boiling point and freezing point of a solution. Students will see particle-level animations of boiling and freezing with different types and amounts of solutes, as well as graphical representations of the results of each trial.

• Interdisciplinary, History, Solubility, Concentration | High School

### Lesson Plan: Legacy of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring

In this lesson, students will read an article to learn about the impact Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring has had. Arguably, the U.S. EPA was formed as a result, and a Nobel Prize-worthy discovery was banned after the book was published. There are a series of activities to help promote literacy in the science classroom related to the reading. This lesson could be easily used as plans for a substitute teacher since most of the activities are self-guided.

• Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Predicting Products | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lesson Plan: Investigating Precipitate Formation

In this lesson, students will learn about lead and the contamination of drinking water. Through collaboration, students will then consider strategies for decontaminating water, and have the opportunity to perform small-scale precipitation reactions as a method of extracting metal ions from a water sample. Finally, students can conduct research and reflect on their experience to propose a possible solution for decontaminating drinking water.

• Identifying an Unknown, Observations, Physical Change, Physical Properties, Chemical Change, Chemical Properties, Solubility, Precipitate, Indicators | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Using Qualitative Analysis to Identify Household Compounds

In this lab, students will be introduced to common laboratory techniques, safety procedures, lab reagents, and terminology, all while identifying unknown household substances. Students will learn how to use qualitative analysis techniques as a systematic way to identify unknown materials. As part of this process, they will practice careful observation and documentation, as well as identifying relevant physical and chemical properties and changes, including solubility, color change, gas formation, and precipitation of solids.

• Solubility Rules, Solubility, Ionic Bonding, Predicting Products | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Solubility Rules Dice Game

In this activity, students will use ion dice to form a number of different ionic compounds. Based on the resulting ionic compound, they will use a solubility chart to determine if it is soluble or insoluble. This game will allow students to become more familiar with ionic compounds and solubility rules.

• Freezing Point Depression, Heat, Phase Changes, Molecular Motion | Middle School, High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Sweet, Salty and Cold as Ice

In this lab, students conduct a micro-scale investigation to explore how various solutes affect the freezing point of water. Because of the small volume of liquid used, results are visible within minutes. Students observe what happens to the liquids as they are cooled and use their observations to infer what is going on at the particle level. They will use the results to explain the familiar phenomena of why we salt our roads and sidewalks in the winter and why freshwater lakes and ponds freeze over more easily than saltwater oceans in the winter.

• Identifying an Unknown, Experimental Design, Scientific Method, Chemical Change, Net Ionic Equation, Precipitate, Solubility, Solubility Rules, Balancing Equations, Predicting Products, Chemical Change | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Mislabeled Mess!

In this lab, students will identify 3 unknown acids by using the solubility rules. They will be given a list of materials and will design their own procedures for identifying the unknowns. For each combination of reactants, they will predict whether a product forms and, if it does, write complete and net ionic equations for those reactions.

• Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure , Polymers, Solubility | High School

### Video: Ingenious Video 4: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem

Polypropylene recycling has a problem: It stinks. Food and other residues are almost impossible to remove entirely from polypropylene, a.k.a the number “5” plastic of grocery-store fame. Those residues – anything from yogurt to garlic, from fish oil to baby food – not only stick to polypropylene, they degrade there and start to smell even worse! Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling. Unless you break down its molecules through a highly energy-intensive refining process, the material can only get a second life as a black trash can or an underground pipe – wherever its smell doesn’t matter. But a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that. Dissolution recycling uses a special hydrocarbon polymer solvent under finely controlled conditions of temperature and pressure to eliminate ALL of the contaminants embedded in the plastic.

• Polymers, Molecular Structure, Molecular Structure , Polymers, Solubility | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Ingenious: How Science Is Fixing Recycling's Grossest Problem Video Questions

In this activity, students will answer questions while watching the video, How Science is Fixing Recycling’s Grossest Problem, from the Ingenious series produced by the American Chemical Society. Each episode investigates a different topic related to how leading-edge chemistry is taking on the world’s most urgent issues to advance everyone’s quality of life and secure our shared future. This episode investigates the stinky problems associated with polypropylene recycling. Current polypropylene recycling techniques are more down-cycling than re-cycling, but a new technique, called dissolution recycling, is changing all that.

• Identifying an Unknown, Experimental Design, Chemical Properties, Physical Properties, Observations, Polyatomic Ions, Chemical Change, Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Solubility | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Determining the Composition of Bridge Straw Stalactites

In this lab, students will investigate “straws” that hang from a local bridge, and then determine various tests that can help to determine their chemical composition. Evaluating both the test results, as well as given information students will then make a claim about the composition, while providing evidence and supporting it with reasoning.

• Reaction Rate, Concentration, Reaction Rate | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: How Fast Can We Remove Tough Stains?

In this lab, students explore how temperature and concentration can affect reaction rate. Using various mixtures of OxiClean solutions, blue food coloring, and water students conduct several tests and draw conclusions based on their results.

• Reduction, Redox Reaction, Reduction Potentials, Galvanic Cells, Oxidation, Half Reactions, Cathode, Anode, Electron Transfer, Electrons, Concentration, Molarity, Net Ionic Equation, Nernst Equation | High School

### Simulation: Galvanic/Voltaic Cells 2

In this simulation, students can create a variety of standard and non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. Students will choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. They can build concentration cells and other non-standard cells, record the cell potential from the voltmeter, and observe the corresponding oxidation and reduction half reactions.

• Galvanic Cells, Reduction Potentials, Redox Reaction, Half Reactions, Electrons, Electron Transfer, Anode, Cathode, Oxidation, Reduction, Concentration, Net Ionic Equation, Molarity, Nernst Equation | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Activity: Simulation Activity: Non-Standard Galvanic Cells

In this activity, students will use a simulation to create a variety of non-standard condition galvanic/voltaic cells. This simulation allows students to choose the metal and solution for each half cell, as well as the concentration of those solutions. Students will build concentration cells and other non-standard cells and record the cell potential from the voltmeter. They will compare the results of different data sets, write net ionic equations, and describe electron flow through a galvanic/voltaic cell from anode to cathode as well as the direction of migration of ions, anions towards the anode and cations towards the cathode.

• Concentration, Percent Composition | Middle School, High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Homemade Hydrometers

In this lesson, students will engineer simple hydrometers from straws and clay to learn about standard solutions, calibration, and instrument drift. They will use their hydrometers to test the salinity of samples of natural water.

• Solubility, Conductivity, Concentration, Equilibrium Constants, Stoichiometry | High School

### Access is an AACT member benefit. Lab: Experimental Determination of the Solubility Product Constant for Calcium Hydroxide

In this lab, students will predict and measure the relationship between the conductivity of a solution of calcium hydroxide and the mass of substance added to it. From the relationship, students will determine solubility and Ksp of calcium hydroxide. Ksp will be calculated using the molar concentration of ions in the solution and the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of calcium hydroxide.