Classroom Resources: Solutions


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  • Physical Properties, Solubility, Polarity, Covalent Bonding, Intermolecular Forces, Molecular Geometry, Electronegativity | Middle School, High School

    Activity: The Chemistry of Water Video Questions

    In this lesson, students will watch a video and answer questions about how the molecular geometry and polarity of water give rise to many of its unusual physical properties, including its relatively high boiling point and its ability to dissolve some substances but not others.

  • Physical Properties, Concentration, Chemical Properties, pH | Middle School

    Activity: Would You Drink it?

    In this activity, students are provided with data regarding the water quality at multiple locations throughout a city. Students will determine which location should be prioritized for cleaning of contaminates. Students will utilize Claim Evidence and Reasoning (CER) to develop a claim that is supported by the data provided.

  • Mixtures, Molecular Structure, Electromagnetic Spectrum | Middle School, High School

    Activity: What are Pigments? Video Questions

    In this activity, students will watch a video and answer related questions about the chemistry of pigment molecules and how they are used to give paints their specific color. During the video, students will learn about the importance of a pigment’s molecular structure, how they are physically suspended to create a paint color, as well as how they interact with light.

  • Mixtures, Intermolecular Forces, Polymers, Molecular Structure, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Electromagnetic Spectrum | Middle School, High School

    Activity: What is Paint? Video Questions

    In this activity, students will watch a video and answer related questions about the composition of paint. During the video, students will learn about the differences between three common paint types, water colors, oil-based and acrylic paint as well as the chemistry of each.

  • Mixtures | Middle School, High School

    Lesson Plan: Making Sense of Milk

    In this lesson, students will compare and contrast the chemical compositions of different types of plant milk and animal milk by analyzing data and developing models.

  • Concentration, Solute & Solvent | Middle School, High School

    Lesson Plan: Diffusion and Osmosis

    In this lesson, students will build upon their understanding of solutions and concentration. They will observe the diffusion of food coloring dye in water and then perform an experiment focused on how solutions of different concentrations will affect the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

  • Solubility, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces | Middle School, High School

    Activity: Advanced Modeling of the Dissolving Phenomenon

    In this activity students build a model of sodium chloride based on their own knowledge of ionic compounds. Then they construct a model of the interactions between water and their salt model to develop an understanding of what caused the salt to dissolve. After refining their models based upon class discussions and critiques, students then construct a model of the interaction between salt and a different solvent, alcohol. Using their models, students make predictions as to which solvent (water or alcohol) would be better at dissolving the salt. Finally students design an experiment to test their prediction. As an extension, students are asked to use their solubility models to explain why calcium carbonate will not dissolve in water, even though it is also an ionic compound.

  • Solubility, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces | Middle School, High School

    Activity: Basic Modeling of the Dissolving Phenomenon

    In this activity, students explore the process of salt dissolving in water using cut-outs of ions and water molecules to model interactions between them. They then use their model to make a prediction about the relative solubility of salt in isopropyl alcohol compared to the solubility in water and design an experiment to test their prediction.

  • Mixtures, Melting Point, Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Freezing Point Depression | High School, Middle School

    Lab: How does Salt "Melt" Ice?

    In this lab, students will consider why salt is used to aide in snow clearing and to help keep icy roads safe. They will investigate how salt ‘melts’ ice and determine the best type of salt to do so. Additionally, students will explore the advantages and disadvantages of the various different types of salt.

  • Density, Mixtures, Solubility | Middle School

    Lab: Investigating Density within Lava Lamps

    In this lab students will make a simple yet spectacular lava lamp while focusing on the density of the components.

  • Observations, Physical Properties, Mixtures, Solute & Solvent, Mixtures | Middle School

    Lesson Plan: How Fast Does it Flow?

    In this lesson students explore the viscosity of different mixtures. They measure viscosity of different mixtures and then have the opportunity to design a mixture to attain a particular viscosity. Students will relate their lab experience to the application of viscosity in the real-world as they consider the differences in viscosity between different types of paints.

  • Separating Mixtures, Physical Properties, Mixtures, Solute & Solvent | Elementary School, Middle School

    Lab: What Does Ironman Eat for Breakfast?

    In this lab students will compare and contrast mixtures and solutions. They will be tasked with extracting iron from various breakfast cereals. They will then conclude which cereal would be the healthiest for Iron Man to eat for breakfast.

  • Mixtures, Molecular Structure, Electromagnetic Spectrum | Middle School, High School

    Video: What are Pigments? Video

    This video discusses the chemistry of pigment molecules and how they are used to give paints their specific color. Students will learn about the importance of a pigment’s molecular structure, how they are physically suspended to create a paint color, as well as how they interact with light.

  • Mixtures, Intermolecular Forces, Molecular Formula, Polymers, Molecular Structure, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Electromagnetic Spectrum | Middle School, High School

    Video: What is Paint? Video

    This video investigates the composition of paint, while analyzing the fundamental chemistry principles of its main components. Students will learn about the differences between three common paint types, water colors, oil-based and acrylic paint as well as the chemistry of each.

  • Concentration, Solute & Solvent, Chemical Change | Elementary School, Middle School

    Demonstration: Soft Eggs

    In this demonstration, students will first observe a reaction between vinegar (acetic acid) and an egg shell (calcium carbonate) to produce a naked egg. Using these eggs, student will analyze how certain substances can move through a membrane and also determine if the membrane is affected.

  • Observations, Physical Properties, Mixtures, Chemical Properties, Separating Mixtures | Elementary School, Middle School

    Lesson Plan: Clean-Up Pond Pollution

    In this lesson, students will compare polluted and filtered water to observe how filtering can remove some kinds of pollutants. Students will also be asked to consider how people affect ecosystems and use the scientific method to conduct an experiment on polluted water.

  • Solubility, Solute & Solvent | Middle School, High School

    Lab: What's the Solution?

    In this lab students will choose one factor that can affect the rate at which a solute will dissolve into solution –amount of stirring, temperature, or particle size, and will design a procedure that can be used to determine how it will affect rate of solution. Students will identify one of the factors above as the independent variable and will determine how it affects the solubility rate as supported by time required to dissolve the solute.

  • Mixtures, Interdisciplinary, Concentration, Measurements, Scientific Method | Middle School, High School

    Lab: Effect of Salt Concentration on Plants

    In this lab, students will observe how salt concentration can affect the structure of a potato tuber.

  • Freezing Point, Phase Changes, Freezing Point Depression | Middle School, High School

    Lab: Freezing Ice Cream

    In this lab, students will investigate changing states of matter, chemical reactions, and the properties of ice and salt while creating their own ice cream.

  • Observations, Density, Mixtures, Inferences, Mixtures | Middle School, High School

    Demonstration: Density Tubes

    In this demonstration, students will have the opportunity to observe and analyze the density of a solution. Students will interpret their observations as they compare the density of the solution with plastic components.

  • Mixtures, Solubility, Intermolecular Forces, Polarity, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Molecular Geometry | Elementary School, Middle School, High School

    Animation: Solubility Animation

    In an animation, students will have an opportunity to visualize on the particulate level how solubility works. Examples of ionic compounds and a polar covalent compound show how when water is attracted to charged parts, they dissolve, and when they're not attracted to charged parts they stay solid. **This video has no audio**

  • Observations, Physical Change, Solute & Solvent, Intermolecular Forces, Heat, Temperature, Exothermic & Endothermic, Saturated/Unsaturated/Supersaturated | High School, Middle School

    Lesson Plan: Particle Modeling of Hand Warmers

    In this lesson, students will create a particulate model of matter that explains energy changes and transfer during a physical process, such as the crystallization of a solid from a supersaturated solution.

  • Solubility, Covalent Bonding, Precipitate, Ionic Bonding, Molecular Structure, Solute & Solvent, Saturated/Unsaturated/Supersaturated | High School, Middle School

    Lab: Benzoic Acid Blizzard in a Bottle

    In this lab, students create a snow globe by taking advantage of benzoic acid’s solubility properties in hot water.

  • Solubility, Precipitate, Solute & Solvent, Saturated/Unsaturated/Supersaturated | High School, Elementary School, Middle School

    Lab: Winter Crystals

    In this lab, students will create a supersaturated solution by dissolving borax in boiling water. They will create a snowflake using pipe cleaner to suspend in the solution, which will serve as a nucleation site for crystallization as the solution cools and remains undistributed overnight. This lab gives students an opportunity to experience the exciting crystallization process and become more familiar with an engaging chemistry spectacle!

  • Concentration, Reaction Rate, Temperature, Graphing | High School, Middle School

    Lab: Starch-Iodine Clock Reaction

    In this lab, students perform an iodine clock reaction to determine how concentration and temperature effect the reaction rate.

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